Author: Jeff@Foresight Ventures
After eip1559 was successfully upgraded, the destruction of eth has attracted much attention. As of the time of writing, nearly 70000 eth have been burned in the whole network, of which the ETH destroyed by NFT + Chain gas fee accounts for 22.1% of the total, which is equivalent to 2.25 times the total destruction of eth on uniswap. If the summer of defi is a big test for all public chain (capacity expansion) projects, there is no doubt that the oncoming wave of gamefi will open a new round of infrastructure card competition.
Taking the original asset ecology as the division standard, we broadly classify the several public chains currently operated by gamefi into the following three categories: eth on Chain Capacity Expansion Scheme (layer2), generalized side chain bridging assets (sidechain) and independent public chain scheme.
Figure 1: main infrastructure of current NFT and chain game projects
According to dapprad and cryptoslam, the leading public chains of NFT and gamefi plates are still eth, polygon, BSC and flow. It is not difficult to understand that the logic of capturing users by the defi infrastructure is still established in the gamefi field. Users look forward to finding suitable investment (game) targets in the familiar ecology with play2earn.
Figure 2: list of popular chain games, source: dappradar
Figure 3: list of popular NFT projects, source: cryptoslam
As a "super side chain" of eth, BSC inherits the defi users on BSC with the blessing of the money security exchange, the traffic center. However, the chain game project running on BSC is more like a variant of the popular game axie. Mobox introduced the concept of mortgage loan NFT on the basis of axie, and cryptobaldes introduced the concept of NFT krypton gold upgrade to improve the winning rate on the basis of battle.
The most outstanding performance of the side chain is ronin side chain, which carries the explosion of axie. At the same time, polygon, as an ambitious eth expansion side chain, creatively handed over the answer sheet of zedrun's popular horse racing game in a highly complete ecology.
Flow, which sits on the top flow NFT project, has opened legal currency payment channels such as ramp to directly exchange for fusd, and developed its own closed-loop ecology such as wallet, in order to cultivate sticky user habits. I think this is also the reason why NBA cards can stand out in many strong IP NFT projects. At present, flow's main RPG + NFT collection chain game project chainmonster is open for public beta, and plans to land on the traditional game platform steam in 2022, which makes people look forward to flow's ability to break the circle. However, due to the relatively closed-loop and single ecology of flow, it is slightly weak in the important link of asset / NFT cross chain bridging. It remains to be seen whether flow can undertake existing users in the chain.
Figure 4: chain game chainmonster, coming online steam, source: onflow.org
Although gamefi can inherit the user volume of defi, different from the digging and selling of defi users, gamefi users prefer to temporarily save or permanently collect the token / NFT obtained by the game in play2earn mode and sell it at an appropriate time point to obtain higher income. Every NFT collector or chain game player can deeply understand that in addition to the three conditions of cheapness, efficiency and cross chain, the long-term security of assets should be considered as a necessary condition.
Therefore, even though high-performance chains such as side chains have become the first stop of gamefi traffic entrance, the vast majority of chain Games / NFT projects to be launched still choose eth as the first public chain from the perspective of asset security and development expansibility.
Axie infinity, a chain tour that continues to explode, uses the ronin side chain developed by its team, carrying more than 500000 people a day. However, most side chains usually sacrifice "decentralization", that is, asset security, in order to achieve a low handling fee and rapid confirmation experience.
Even if the side chain polygon adopts a free and open node scheme in front of this problem and provides users with two asset bridging tools, POS bridge and plasma bridge, the security of the former and the timeliness of the latter are still criticized.
Eth layer2 rollup scheme has been nominated and recommended by vitalik, founder of Ethereum for many times. ZK rollup, with its simple and fast coin charging smart contract, not only ensures asset safety, but also greatly reduces gas fee, which is praised as an effective capacity expansion scheme in a long-term cycle. Although ZK is difficult to meet the complex contract general computing function in a short time compared with optimal rollup, the latter takes too long to withdraw money, and ZK rollup is still recognized by the market.
For more explanations on capacity expansion technology, please refer to this article: https://vitalik.ca/general/2021/01/05/rollup.html
Figure 5: polygonstudios layout polygon chain tour ecology
Therefore, after setting up polygon studios and determined to expand the territory of chain games + NFT, polygon immediately acquired HERMEZ network with us $250 million and invested US $1 billion as polygon ZK rollup strategic R & D fund, which made up for the blank of polygon ecological layer2 expansion scheme. However, as the most difficult expansion scheme to develop, ZK rollup's online time is still unknown. At the same time, it also provides a "beach grabbing" window for other ZK expansion teams.
Immutable X's predecessor team is the well-known chain game company God unchained (hereinafter referred to as Gu). The legendary production team fuel games created a five-day 400eth revenue record in the downturn stage of 2019, and more than 4 million NFT game cards (erc721 format) were created in the public beta stage of the game, In the same year, he created a "sky high" NFT game card - Mythic worth $62000. Coinbase, FTX, animoca and other strong investor backgrounds also make it a star team born with a golden key.
With the increasing number of users, the Gu team started to solve the practical problem of congested and expensive transactions on the ETH chain, so they began to prepare and plan the layer2 capacity expansion scheme for chain games (NFT). The development team was originally called immutable to ensure the absolute security of user assets. For this reason, the side chain expansion scheme was also abandoned.
Adhering to the solution of immutable capacity expansion = eth capacity expansion = NFT capacity expansion, after comparing the optimal and zero knowledge proof (zk) schemes, immutable finally gave up the optimal and chose the ZK capacity expansion path because the "anti fraud proof" of the former led to the long withdrawal process and the disadvantage could not be remedied. As mentioned above, zero knowledge proves that although the general computing function cannot be realized in a short time, based on the current development level of chain games, it can meet the simple needs such as NFT transaction synthesis, and ensure the asset security to the greatest extent while being fast and free, which is enough to become the most "easy-to-use" infrastructure.
When faced with the choice of ZK expansion scheme validium and ZK rollup, immutable just perfectly combined with the starkware team to design a zero knowledge proof scheme "volition" suitable for the habits of chain game users. This scheme gives the option back to users, which not only integrates the efficiency of validium without data verification, but also meets the needs of game players for asset light and high-frequency transactions, It also integrates the data verification security of ZK rollup to meet the absolute security requirements of low-frequency large amount asset transfer. In April 2021, immutable x launched its beta version, saving NFT traders nearly $1.3 million in gas fee in its first week. In the introduction of the latest project test scheme, we noticed that immutable x called itself ZK rollup layer 2 expansion scheme. We believe that after the official version of volition is launched, it will bring us a smoother experience.
Figure 6: volition ZK solution, source: immutablex.medium.com
As mentioned above, the online gap of polygon layer2 may provide immutable x with the opportunity to seize the market share of layer 2. I think there are three necessary elements for public chain infrastructure to seize the market share:
First of all, compared with the polygon side chain mentioned above, what kind of use experience does immutable bring us?
Figure 7: comparison of immunotable X and polygon POS chain use processes
As the layer 2 scheme of eth ecology, immutable x can enable the project prosperity of the whole eth ecology. In recent hot events, the most popular chain tour projects are also closely combined with immutable x ecology.
Although illuvium, a high-profile 3A game, has not yet been launched, it reached a full circulation market value of nearly US $4.5 billion in August, with a total number of attention of more than 70000 times. The game is designed with a complex and interesting monster battle system, which contains ultra-high NFT synthesis trading opportunities. The game is expected to launch immutable X in Q3 in 2021. The guild's guides of guardians, which auctioned out the sky high price, pioneered the gold playing mode of the chain game team. Individual players must realize play2earn by joining the guild. Before going online, more than 130000 users have been captured to register for internal testing. Immutable x will also be launched in Q4 in 2021. My crypto heroes, a classic NFT chain tour in Japan, has a dau of 40000 and plans to cooperate with immutable x (the game also plans to develop a polygon version).
Another core link of chain game is NFT trading. In addition to collecting classic NFT marketplaces such as opensea, immutable X has also developed a built-in immutable marketplace. It is like a "cross project bridge" of NFT trading to integrate NFTs in different game ecosystems into the same market, Its original "metaorder" order model also helps traders screen their favorite NFTs in the fastest way. At the same time, in the recently updated project plan, immutable also proposed a new concept of "carbon neutral" NFT transaction, counted the gas fee generated by all NFT transactions, and handed it to immutable team to invest in the purchase of carbon emission indicators from the project profits.
It is not difficult to find that immutable X has locked the most popular hot chain game projects and all potential users in advance through its complete ecological layout!
Figure 8: IMX ecological diagram, source: eth icon is from ethereum.org
At the same time, in order to encourage users to enter the ecology of immutable x, immutable X's platform token IMX has also been put on the agenda.
Although the token white paper of IMX has not been released, it has begun to air drop IMX tokens to early gods unchained players and marketplace users. The official medium also continues to send a document saying that new players still have the opportunity to obtain the air drop reward of IMX tokens.
It is worth noting that although the balance eth of immutable X's smart contract eth is only more than 600, the number of people charging and withdrawing coins per day remains high, maintaining the level of 1000 addresses per day. Although all star games are not online at present, potential players are actively trying to use immutable X.
Figure 9: immutable x eth charging and withdrawal, source: etherscan.io
We might as well boldly imagine what token rights can IMX be given in order to capture users? Community governance voting, platform revenue dividends, platform transactions, general tokens (NFT exchange across games), in-game rights and interests, NFT mortgage and lending tokens... Immutablex full of imagination can't help but arouse more curiosity: will there be a new game launch platform in the field of chain games, a steam in the field of chain games?
In addition to the above layer 2 fierce battle, the competition between chain game projects is more fierce. The ultra fast financing speed and the valuation of game projects of US $1 billion make people feel the heat and expectation of the current market. However, at present, most chain tour projects are dominated by a single game, and there are few metaverse auction chain tour carriers such as the sandbox and decentraland. Therefore, in the fierce discussion of metauniverse + Chain tour, the land auction has also ushered in a new round of auction climax.
When it comes to land auction project, Gala, another unique erc1155 project, can't help but brighten your eyes. Gala aims to build itself into a composite game platform - "chain game hall", which is a rare platform area chain game project in the chain game field.
Erc1155 can be understood as a compatible version of erc20token and erc721nft. It can deploy an unlimited number of ordinary tokens and NFTs in a smart contract. At the same time, it can also package and submit multiple complex transactions to the blockchain. I think this feature is extremely suitable for developing NFT synthetic evolution games, especially for characterizing game points, game gold coins and other game ecological economic tokens and their NFT.
For a simple example, in construction games, if the specified upgrade path is 10000 bricks = 1000 walls = 10 floors = 1 building, if you want to characterize the whole process through erc721-nft, you need to create at least 11011 different NFTs. If you use erc1155-nft to characterize the whole process, you can create 10000 brick tokens (NFTs) and 1000 wall NFTs, 10 floor NFT and 1 high-rise NFT. Moreover, the synthesis path of erc1155-nft is reversible, that is, if 10 floors of NFT are destroyed, one high-rise NFT can be created, then 10 floors of NFT can be obtained by destroying one high-rise building.
Similar to immunotable, gala's founder background also has a complete game gene. Founder Eric is one of the founders of Zynga, an old social game company (Stock Code: ZnGa, market value $9.079 billion on August 18). Zynga reached its peak around 2010. Relying on Facebook's powerful social network, Zynga developed web games to the extreme, and established its position as the world's largest game manufacturer through popular games such as "city Ville". Cheng Xiaohe lost Xiao He. Due to over reliance on Facebook's social network, he misjudged the rise of mobile games and did not transform in time. Zynga's darkest moment was set in 2014.
Fortunately, after learning from previous experience, Gala successfully grasped the new track of chain tour, timely improved the user system and created a social network attached to the blockchain address. Russo (polyient) evaluated gala as a content creation company that has built a game ecosystem for a long time, and used its strong marketing skills to attract mainstream Internet users to participate in the blockchain.
Gala, as a general token in the "Gala game hall", has the functions of community pass, game pass, game development (land auction), game launch, NFT marketplace and so on.
As a game development platform and online platform, Gala integrates five original built-in games by taking advantage of the subtleties of the erc1155 standard, namely: Town Star (farm construction game, open for public beta), spider tank project, mirandus (open for public beta soon), fortified and echoes of Empire. On the basis of playability, each game also has play2earn mode, that is, after collecting and synthesizing rare NFTs, earn token rewards through rarity ranking. 1.8 million monthly live users were captured in the five weeks since the town house beta was launched!
In July 2021, Gala games received investment from BSC incubation fund, and exchanged Gala tokens with BSC chain assets to provide users with a variety of asset management methods.
In addition, Gala also recently released a new version of game stores to integrate game stores and NFT marketplace. Gala token can be used to purchase function packs in the game to realize functional evolution. It can also be used as ecological currency to trade NFT in gala game store. Gala game stores, as an NFT transaction aggregator, can help users simplify the NFT transaction process as much as possible. Through screening, sorting and other functions, Gala game stores can merge and purchase their own NFT at one time, saving users the time of switching back and forth in different game stores.
At the same time, Gala tokens can also be used to purchase network nodes and share revenue sharing with the whole community by participating in node pledge. As a unique platform game project, we look forward to the future development of Gala!
Figure 10: Gala ecological overview, source: app.gala.games
The development process of chain game can refer to the development process of Internet games. Its carrier may be from web page to computer client, from mobile page to mobile app, and from red and white machine to physical game machine. I believe that the form of flow entrance will also be upgraded and iterated with the development of chain game. It may originate from the public chain ecology and develop into an integrated wallet, or it may explode from a popular web page all over the world, or it may be a game console with the function of "cold wallet". The latest version of Google horizon just released recently makes us believe that the future of metaverse is not far away.
At present, the chain tour is still in its early stage. Most of them adopt the two-step mode of recording the actual operation on the client server and handing over the asset allocation to the chain for bookkeeping. High performance infrastructure is extremely important when games involve frequent and complex records on the chain. In the long run, the side chain lacking security and congested layer 1 will eventually be expanded by layer 2 and iterated by eth fragmentation scheme. Polygon and makerdao quickly realized this and quickly created the gamefi platform gamefi.org in August. It can be seen that the chain tour steam is a competitive place for chain tour strategists! Immutable x, as a rare layer2 expansion scheme + game platform, has an important gene to grow into a chain game steam.
"Small game hall" is also a game platform project that is likely to appear in the development path of chain tourism. In order to break the circle quickly, chain travel needs a simple and easy-to-use carrier to reduce the threshold, and it also needs to fission and obtain customers through the simple play2earn mode. We also saw the prototype of this small and beautiful platform in gala game, breaking the circle to attract users in the Internet through chain game.
The outbreak of chain tour is an important event in the era of meta universe, and the flow entrance of chain tour will also become a hotbed for users of meta universe. Gamefi user battle is about to break out, let's open our arms and look forward to it!